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We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements.

We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions.

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There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.


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Abstract Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. Images from this publication. See all images 9 Free text. Meridional section through the uveal tract of a Macaca fascicularis. Arrowheads show supraciliary and suprachoroidal space. Unconventional outflow passes from the anterior chamber AC , through the most posterior aspects of the uveal meshwork, enters the open spaces between longitudinal aspects of the ciliary muscle CM and then enters the suprachoroidal space.

Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review. - PubMed - NCBI

Unconventional Aqueous Humor Outflow: Light micrograph of fluorescein dextran in the unconventional outflow pathway of a rabbit after intracameral perfusion AC, anterior chamber. Fluorescence is visible in the conventional aqueous drainage pathway a , comprising angular meshwork, angular aqueous plexus, and collector channels and aqueous veins, and in the unconventional outflow in the outer aspects of the ciliary body b and muscle, and in the suprachoroidal space arrows.

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  6. Tracer is also seen in the iris c , which has been artefactually deflected posteriorly. Fluorescein concentration in the vortex veins and in general circulation in a rhesus monkey after introduction into the anterior chamber.

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    IOP was held at 20 mmHg for 60 minutes and then increased to 32 mmHg. Inset shows flow at low perfusion pressure. The solid line is from with flow measured at pressures of 10 and 20 mmHg. The red circle indicates the apparent unconventional outflow U erroneously estimated by using. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year e. Your Research Data Share your research data Visualize your data. Publishing your article with us has many benefits, such as having access to a personal dashboard: This free service is available to anyone who has published and whose publication is in Scopus.

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