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He lived in London. Brought to you by curio. We live in a golden age of technological, medical, scientific and social progress. Look at our computers! Look at our phones! Twenty years ago, the internet was a creaky machine for geeks. We are on the verge of medical breakthroughs that would have seemed like magic only half a century ago: Even now, life expectancy in some rich countries is improving by five hours a day.
Surely immortality, or something very like it, is just around the corner. The notion that our 21st-century world is one of accelerating advances is so dominant that it seems churlish to challenge it. Yet there once was an age when speculation matched reality. It spluttered to a halt more than 40 years ago. Most of what has happened since has been merely incremental improvements upon what came before. Just about everything that defines the modern world either came about, or had its seeds sown, during this time. Computers and the birth of the internet. The Green Revolution in agriculture.
The birth of the gay rights movement. Cheap, reliable and safe automobiles. We put a man on the Moon, sent a probe to Mars, beat smallpox and discovered the double-spiral key of life. The Golden Quarter was a unique period of less than a single human generation, a time when innovation appeared to be running on a mix of dragster fuel and dilithium crystals.
Today, progress is defined almost entirely by consumer-driven, often banal improvements in information technology. As the US technologist Peter Thiel once put it: Economists describe this extraordinary period in terms of increases in wealth. New industrial powerhouses arose from the ashes of Japan.
Germany experienced its Wirtschaftswunder. Even the Communist world got richer. This growth has been attributed to massive postwar government stimulus plus a happy nexus of low fuel prices, population growth and high Cold War military spending. But alongside this was that extraordinary burst of human ingenuity and societal change. This is commented upon less often, perhaps because it is so obvious, or maybe it is seen as a simple consequence of the economics. We saw the biggest advances in science and technology: But we also saw a shift in social attitudes every bit as profound.
By , those old prejudices were on the back foot. Simply put, the world had changed. B ut surely progress today is real? Well, take a look around. Look up and the airliners you see are basically updated versions of the ones flying in the s — slightly quieter Tristars with better avionics. In , a regular airliner took eight hours to fly from London to New York; it still does. And in , there was one airliner that could do the trip in three hours.
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Now, Concorde is dead. Our cars are faster, safer and use less fuel than they did in , but there has been no paradigm shift. And yes, we are living longer, but this has disappointingly little to do with any recent breakthroughs. Despite these billions of investment, this war has been a spectacular failure. In the US, the death rates for all kinds of cancer dropped by only 5 per cent in the period , according to the National Center for Health Statistics. Even if you strip out confounding variables such as age more people are living long enough to get cancer and better diagnosis, the blunt fact is that, with most kinds of cancer, your chances in are not much better than they were in In many cases, your treatment will be pretty much the same.
After the dizzying breakthroughs of the 20th century, physics seems to have ground to a halt. For the past 20 years, as a science writer, I have covered such extraordinary medical advances as gene therapy, cloned replacement organs, stem-cell therapy, life-extension technologies, the promised spin-offs from genomics and tailored medicine. The human volunteer studies have focused on mobile phone radiation effects on e.
These studies have one major set-back - experimental environment and used exposure and measurement hardware can psychologically affect behavior of the volunteers during the experiments and the obtained information might become subjective and unreliable [ 16 ]. Therefore, in addition to such studies we also need studies that would examine whether human body responds to mobile phone radiation on molecular level.
It is certain that just such human volunteer studies, using methods of proteomics, transcriptomics and other reliable biochemical analyses, are urgently needed to demonstrate whether human body tissues, organs responds, or not, to mobile phone radiation. Such studies will not only show whether human body recognizes mobile phone radiation as an external stressor but also will provide information which molecules, proteins and genes react to mobile phone radiation.
With this information in hand it will be possible to formulate new, knowledge-based, hypotheses for further health risk related studies in humans [ 17 , 18 ]. As stated already, to this time, we do not have available objective information whether human body recognizes mobile phone radiation at levels permitted by the current safety standards as an external stressor and responds to it at molecular level. Therefore, because of the lack of studies that would provide unbiased information whether the human body responds to mobile phone radiation, it is problematic to consider that the presently available safety standards protect all users of mobile phones [ 19 ].
Such claims might be premature in situation when we still do not know whether human body reacts to mobile phone radiation at all. The effects of mobile phone radiation on children and recommended prudent use of mobile phones are one of the more discussed issues [ 20 - 23 ].
The present safety limits are considered to protect also children [ 24 ]. However, in part due to ethical considerations, there are no published studies where the effects of mobile phone radiation on development or health of children would have been examined. The scientific evidence comes only from the studies examining young animals and its applicability to human children might be of limited value. The presently used safety standards might very well protect the majority of mobile phone users.
However, there likely exists a subpopulation of people with different sensitivity to mobile phone radiation not to confuse with the self-diagnosed so-called Electromagnetic Hyper Sensitivity - EHS. It is known that due to genetic variability among people, the same physical or chemical agents medication, radiation, chemicals, allergens, etc may elicit responses of differing severity in different people [ 25 ] - the so-called individual sensitivity. Finding out such sensitive subpopulation and defining it might be only possible by examining molecular level responses to this radiation [ 18 ].
Animal studies are commonly used when examining whether physical and chemical agents affect human health. In sensu stricto toxicology studies, animals are treated with a large overdose of tested agent, which would not be encountered by human being in real life situation. However, such toxicology studies are not possible to perform for mobile phone radiation microwaves. Overdose of microwave radiation, above the level of current safety standards, will heat up the animal and, in extreme cases it might simply "cook it".
Interpretation of such studies, in respect to human health risk, might be very difficult because of the temperature increase of the animal. The current safety standards are set specifically to protect from such thermal effects of mobile phone radiation. The other kind of animal studies are these where animals were exposed for different periods of time to doses of mobile phone radiation that are permitted by the current safety standards and that do not cause heating of the animal.
However, direct extrapolation of the results of such animal studies, performed at low doses of mobile phone radiation, to human health risk is also problematic. It is known that although humans and animals possess many of the same genes, the functions of the same genes might differ and some of the same cancer types are regulated by different genes in animals and in humans.
This causes that some of the cancers that will appear in animal will not appear in humans and vice-versa [ 26 ]. Also, lack of the effects of low-dose exposures in animals does not automatically mean that this will apply also to humans. The majority of research on the biological effects of mobile phone radiation has been done in laboratory in vitro studies and the vast majority of the conducted research has focused on cancer.
Some of the in vitro studies suggest, although do not prove, that mobile phone radiation might alter cell physiology e. However, there are also numerous studies that do not see such effects [ 20 - 22 ]. One of the more vigorously debated issues is whether mobile phone radiation is able to cause DNA damage. There have been performed numerous studies on this subject and while the majority of them shows no effect, there are some studies suggesting that the DNA might be damaged by mobile phone radiation.
However, nearly all studies have used the same methodological approach - the comet assay, micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberrations. It seems clear that without changing the methodological approach, the issue of DNA damage might not be reliably resolved in the near future. This call for changing methodological approach applies also to other areas of EMF research because when looking at the EMF publications one gets impression that this research is "stuck" on replication and re-replication of the studies using the same, often outdated, methods that in the end do not give resolution to the problem.
Finally, even though there have been executed numerous in vitro laboratory studies, these in vitro studies are of value only for discovering the biochemical mechanism of the effect and they provide support for human and animal studies, but they can not be directly used to determine the probability of health risk or in providing information for setting of human health safety standard.
We still are missing some of the basic information that is required to determine whether mobile phone radiation could be hazardous for humans and whether our safety standards are adequate - we do not know whether human body reacts at all to mobile phone radiation. If the answer is yes then: In the absence of such information, any statements indicating that the use of mobile phones has been shown to be safe might be premature. After all, we also need to remember that the mobile phone radiation is not a natural part of human environment and evolution did not prepare our bodies for such exposure.
The last years are the first years in the history of human species when our brains are being closely and directly exposed to this, novel to them, radiation. The current safety standards might be the best what can be done using the presently available scientific evidence and they should not be altered arbitrarily, without scientific justification. However, these standards are not yet sufficiently supported by the science and can not be considered as scientifically reliable. This is why we should continue research in this area. The reason for continuation of research is not just science for the science's sake.
The reason is that our scientific evidence is insufficient to support the notions that there will be no health effects and that the safety standards are sufficient to protect all users. The present situation of scientific uncertainty calls for both precautionary measures and for further research. International Agency for Research on Cancer. DL has prepared the first version of the manuscript. DL and ZX have equally participated in revising and modifying the manuscript to its final version. Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in male and female rats.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine , vol. Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. Maskey, Dhiraj, et al. Nittby H, et al. Effects of microwave radiation upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier. European Journal of Oncology, vol. Bas O, et al. Chronic prenatal exposure to the megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices 2. International Journal of Radiation Biology , vol.
Effects of prenatal exposure to a megahertz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: Leszczynski, Dariusz, et al. Yale University research found prenatally exposed pups had impaired memory, increased hyperactivity, and altered brains—consistent with a growing literature. Many studies have now demonstrated that wireless signals can damage cognitive abilities such as learning, memory, attention, and reaction times. Hugh Taylor of Yale Medical School. Birks, Laura, et al. A prospective cohort study in adolescents.
Epidemiological studies have shown associations between exposures and behavioral issues in children and experimental test subjects. For example, a recent study showed a significant dose-response relationship between the number and duration of voice calls made on cell phones and ADHD risk among children who were also exposed to lead in their environment. Exposure to cell phones prenatally and postnatally is associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems. Feizhou, Zheng, et al. Narayanan SN, et al. Aldad TS, et al. Divan HA, et al.
Research in humans shows that chronic mobile phone usage results in high-frequency hearing loss and inner ear damage. Research has also shown a significant risk of tumors on the auditory nerve in the brain acoustic neuromas. Experimental research with rodents shows signs of neuronal degeneration in the auditory system after exposure. Medeiros, Luisa Nascimento and Tanit Ganz. Dhiraj Maskey, Myeung Ju Kim. Seckin E, et al. Velayutham P, et al.
Sudan M, et al. Oktay M, and S. Das S, Chakraborty S, Mahanta B, A study on the effect of prolonged mobile phone use on pure tone audiometry thresholds of medical students of Sikkim. Research shows children who used cell phones or who were exposed prenatally to wireless radiation are at higher risk of developing headaches. Wang, Jing, et al. Environmental Health and Toxicology Madhuri Sudan, et al. The radiation from wireless transmitting devices damages sleep.
For example, this radiation has been shown to delay entrance into deep non-REM sleep and decrease time spent in this stage of sleep. The quantity and quality of sleep has a profound impact on learning and memory. A sleep-deprived person cannot focus or learn efficiently. Sleep also has a critical role in the consolidation of memory essential for learning new information.
Schmid MR , et al. Regel SJ, et al. Oxidative stress is the formation of tissue-damaging free radicals. A recent research review shows 93 out of currently available peer-reviewed studies indicate that radiofrequency radiation increases oxidative stress. This stress response damages cells and DNA through the production of peroxides and free radicals. Conceivable mechanisms of action.
Mina, Despoina, et al. Pandey, Neelam, et al. Influence of electromagnetic field MHz on lipid peroxidation in brain, blood, liver and kidney in rats. Igor Yakymenko, et al. Cetin H, et al. Hou Q, et al. Yakymenko, Igor, et al. Hamzany Y, et al. Ballardin, Michela, et al. Augner C, et al. Tomruk A, Guler G and A.
Radiation at extremely low levels 0. Studies at non-thermal no measurable temperature change levels of microwave exposures show chromosomal instability, altered gene expression, gene mutations, DNA fragmentation, and DNA structural breaks. Genetic mutations and cellular damage can potentially contribute to cancer growth.
Strong effects from microwaves have been found in stem cells. Since stem cells are more active in children, researchers are concerned that children are at increased risk. While electromagnetic fields may not directly damage DNA, research indicates they could set into motion a series of biological impacts that result in genetic damage.
A experimental study found that 2. Lai analyzed research since and found there are more papers reporting effects from exposure than no effect: De Luca, Chiara, et al. Burlaka A, et al. Blank M and R. Guler G, et al.
Health risks associated with mobile phones use
Xu S, et al. Zhijian C, et al. Schwarz C, et al. Research has shown impacts to the pineal gland, adrenal gland, and thyroid gland. These glands balance hormones that involve sleep. Research has shown that low levels of microwave exposure can reduce melatonin. Melatonin is not just critical to maintaining our sleep rhythm but it is also an extremely important antioxidant that helps to repair damaged DNA and reduces the growth of cancer cells.
Additionally, research shows thyroid hormone levels can be impacted by wireless radiation. It has been established that even a small change in thyroid hormones can alter the brain. Topsakal, Senay, et al. Mina D et al. Mortavazi S, et al. Koyu A, et al. Several studies reported changes in EEG after prolonged repeated exposure to radiofrequency radiation.
In some of these studies, relatively low power densities were used. Hinrikus, Hiie, et al. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals 2. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. Saini, Barjinder Singh and Anukul Pandey. Havas M and J. Andrzejak R, et al. Research shows that exposure to electromagnetic fields could potentially increase the effects from other exposures.
For example, a recent study showed a significant dose-response relationship between the number and duration of voice calls made on cell phones and ADHD risk among children exposed to lead in their environment. Soffritti, Morando, et al. Byun Y-H, et al. Nittby, Henrietta, et al. Nittby, Henriettta, et al. A meta-analysis of experimental studies. There have been many notable research reviews published that cover various research topics in electromagnetic fields.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Reviews on Environmental Health, vol. Cucurachi S, et al. Davis DL, et al. Herbert MR, Sage C. Plausibility of a pathophysiological link — Part I. Herbert MR and Sage C.
New cellphone and health studies don’t eliminate uncertainty | Science | AAAS
Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II. Markov M and Y. Giuliani, Livio and Morando Soffritti. They cover the research published between Please see these summaries at the Bioinitiative site here. The number of mobile phones, laptop computers, and other devices emitting radio frequency radiation to which we are exposed on a daily basis is enormous. WiFi and cell phones are ubiquitous. Current research indicates that children and the fetus are most at risk from exposures to electromagnetic fields. Equally important, their smaller stature, thinner skulls and unique body makeup result in radiofrequency radiation penetrating their brains and bodies more deeply in proportion to adults.
Children have more active stem cells which are shown to be more impacted by microwave radiation. Liorni I, et al. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. De Salles and Devra Lee Davis. Yes the Children are more exposed to radio-frequency energy from mobile telephones than adults. Morgan, and Devra L. Redmayne M, and O. Verloock, Leen, et al. Christ A, et al. Stay updated on peer reviewed published research and you also can search within the database for research studies on your health issues.
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Our mailing address is: Scientific Research on Wireless Health Effects. Read the research showing increased cancer risk here. In the following an updated summary is given of case-control studies on brain and head tumors; glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma. In most instances the glioma risk estimates increased after adjustment for study biases among long term or heavy mobile phone users. The authors found that the risk estimate for glioma among the highest quartile of cell phone users increased after adjustment. Risk estimates for other types of head tumors did not change.
The objective of our study was to investigate the potential association between mobile phone use and subsequent glioma risk using meta-analysis. Long-term mobile phone use was associated with 2. Our results suggest that long-term mobile phone use may be associated with an increased risk of glioma. Researchers conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic databases for relevant publications. Twenty four studies 26 cases, 50 controls on individual exposure were included into the meta-analysis. The results support the hypothesis that long-term use of mobile phone increases risk of intracranial tumors, especially in the case of ipsilateral exposure.
This paper aims to investigate whether methodological quality of studies and source of funding can explain the variation in results. The summary estimate of government funded as well as phone industry funded studies showed no significant increase, while mixed funded studies did not show any increase in risk of brain tumour. The association was significantly linked with methodological study quality. All nine viewpoints were evaluated based on epidemiology and laboratory studies.
Increased risk for glioma was in the temporal lobe. Using meningioma cases as comparison group still increased the risk.
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C umulative use of wireless phones increased the risk. Animal studies showed an increased incidence of glioma and malignant schwannoma in rats exposed to radiofrequency RF radiation. There is a change in the natural history of glioma and increasing incidence. RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma. Results showed an increased incidence of thyroid cancer in Sweden from , with the increase being statistically significant in women but not men.
Other nordic countries also showed significantly statistic thyroid cancer increases. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e. Results indicated a statistically significant association between intracranial distribution of gliomas and location of phone. The exposure levels used in the studies were equal to and higher than the highest level permitted for local tissue exposure in cell phone emissions today.
Cell phones typically emit lower levels of RFR than the maximum level allowed. NTP will hold an external expert review of its complete findings from these rodent studies March The incidence of tumors, called malignant schwannomas, that were observed in the heart increased in male rats as they were exposed to increasing levels of RFR beyond the allowable cell phone emissions. Researchers also noted increases in an unusual pattern of cardiomyopathy, or damage to heart tissue, in exposed male and female rats.
Overall, there was little indication of health problems in mice related to RFR. The reports also point out statistically significant increases in the number of rats and mice with tumors found in other organs at one or more of the exposure levels studied, including the brain, prostate gland, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, liver, and pancreas. However, the researchers determined that these were equivocal findings, meaning it was unclear if any of these tumor increases were related to RFR. Exposures to rats began in-utero meaning while the mother rats are pregnant. The exposures to mice start during adolescence and continued through young adulthood subchronic or for 2 years chronic.
Increased incidence of gliomas — a rare, aggressive, and highly malignant brain cancer — as well as schwannomas a rare tumor of the nerve sheath of the heart were found in both sexes but reached statistical significance only in males. Significantly more rare, pre-cancerous changes in the glial cells of the brain in both sexes, while not a single one of the unexposed control animals developed these same abnormal brain cells. Male rats exposed to all levels of CDMA developed exceptional numbers of damaged, pre-cancerous brain cells glial hyperplasia.
Both male and female rats, exposed to all levels of microwave radiation, developed increased incidence of rare malignant tumors of Schwann cells nerve sheaths of the heart. Females exposed to all levels of CDMA also developed precancerous hyperplastic Schwann cells, while none of the unexposed controls developed this rare abnormality. Transcript of the press conference L. These tumors are of the same histotype of those observed in some epidemiological studies on cell phone users. Significantly altered levels of interleukin 10 and 1-Beta were found between exposed and unexposed individuals in a manner that is consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment within the parotid gland.
Concerns have been raised about the possible biological effects of nonionizing radiation and low-intensity fields, including low frequency fields from the electric power generating, transmission, and distribution system and the devices it energizes, as well as intermediate, radio-frequency RF , and higher-frequency radiation from devices such as cell phones, broadcast antennas, Wi-Fi, security monitors, and so forth.
These are concerns about the direct effects of radiation on humans or other organisms. They are distinct from the electromagnetic compatibility issues that concern interference by the fields from one device with the function of another, though human health can be indirectly affected by electromagnetic interference with the function of medical devices, including hospital equipment or pacemakers. In addition, lymphomas were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure.
A clear dose—response effect is absent. We hypothesize that these tumor-promoting effects may be caused by metabolic changes due to exposure. Since many of the tumor-promoting effects in our study were seen at low to moderate exposure levels 0. Our findings may help to understand the repeatedly reported increased incidences of brain tumors in heavy users of mobile phones. The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use.
No association with brain tumours was observed when comparing regular mobile phone users with non-users. These additional data support previous findings concerning a possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours. Significant additional shortages in oncology services are expected at the current growth of cancer.
No other environmental carcinogen has produced evidence of an increased risk in just one decade…If the increased brain cancer risk found in young users in these recent studies does apply at the global level, the gap between supply and demand for oncology services will continue to widen. We concluded that glioma and also acoustic neuroma are caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones, and thus regarded as carcinogenic, under Group 1 according to the IARC classification, indicating that current guidelines for exposure should be urgently revised.
This pooled analysis gives further support to that conclusion regarding glioma. Survival was analyzed for glioma patients in Hardells— and — case-control studies.
Scientific Research on Wireless Health Effects
Highest HR was found for cases with first use before the age of 20 years. International Cancer registries are showing a rise in brain cancer. Children absorb more microwave radiation, a Class 2 B possible carcinogen than adults. The fetus is in greater danger than children from exposure to MWR. The legal exposure limits have remained unchanged for decades. For persons with more than 25 years latency period time since first use until tumour diagnosis a 3-fold increased risk was found. The risk increased further for tumours located in the most exposed area of the brain, the temporal lobe, to a 5-fold increased risk.
OR increased per h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma. The criteria on strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, and biologic gradient for evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma were fulfilled.
Based on the Hill criteria, glioma and acoustic neuroma should be considered to be caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones and regarded as carcinogenic to humans, classifying it as group 1 according to the IARC classification. Current guidelines for exposure need to be urgently revised. It is concluded that one should be careful using incidence data to dismiss results in analytical epidemiology.
Researchers examined the radiofrequency exposure from mobile phones between subjects from the Interphone study with brain tumors gliomas and meningiomas and their matched control cases. Our results suggest that there may be an increase in risk of glioma in the most exposed area of the brain among long-term and heavy users of mobile phones. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are possibly carcinogenic to humans Group 2B. Time trends were considered, as were several early case—control studies and one cohort study. While both of these are susceptible to bias, the Working Group concluded that these findings could not be dismissed as reflecting bias alone, and that a causal interpretation was possible.
This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals. The Hardell-group conducted during two case control studies on brain tumours including assessment of use of mobile phones and cordless phones. This research assessed the relationship between cellphone use and tumors of the parotid gland, utilizing data from Israeli subjects diagnosed at age 18 or more and matched controls.
Results suggested that there is a relationship between long-term and heavy cellphone use and parotid gland tumor development. In the multivariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of acoustic neuroma was found with the use of analogue phones. Read the scientific research showing damage to the reproductive system by clicking here. Reviews on Reproductive Effects Houston B.
Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species documented elevated levels and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage, due to RF-EMR exposure. Associated with this, RF-EMR treatment reduced antioxidant levels in 6 of 6 studies that studied this phenomenon, while consequences of RF-EMR were successfully ameliorated with the supplementation of antioxidants in all 3 studies that carried out these experiments.
We propose a mechanistic model in which RF-EMR exposure leads to defective mitochondrial function associated with elevated levels of ROS production and culminates in a state of oxidative stress that would account the varying phenotypes observed in response to RF-EMR exposure. This paper reviews proteomic experimental and clinical evidence that EMF acts as a male-mediated teratogen and contributor to infertility. Some experimental studies have found that human sperm exposed to electromagnetic fields EMF , either simulated or from mobile phones, developed biomarkers of impaired structure and function, as well as reduced quantity.
These encompass pathological, endocrine, and proteomic changes. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, and the proteome is the entire array of proteins—the ultimate biomolecules in the pathways of DNA transcription to translation. Our analyses indicate negative associations between mobile phone exposure on sperm viability and motility. The effects on concentration are more equivocal.
Further research is required to quantify these effects more precisely and to evaluate the clinical importance of the risk to both sub-fertile men and the general population. The in vitro and in vivo studies to date are highly diverse, very inconsistent in conduct and, in many cases, report different primary outcomes. The increasing use of cell phone warrants well-designed studies to ascertain the effect of their RF-EMR on reproduction. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success.
The effect of EMF exposure on reproductive function differs according to frequency and wave, strength energy , and duration of exposure. In the present review, the effects of EMFs on reproductive function are summarized according to the types of EMF, wave type, strength, and duration of exposure at cellular and organism levels.
Through in vitro and in vivo studies, EMF exposure was found to alter the reproductive endocrine hormones, gonadal function, embryonic development, pregnancy, and fetal development Table 1 , Figure 2. These effects were different according to the frequency, duration of exposure, and strength of EMFs. Humans in modern society cannot avoid various kinds of EMFs during household and occupational activities, but should be aware of the biological hazard of EMFs.
The effort to avoid EMF exposure and techniques to protect or relieve EMF radiation are required to preserve our reproductive potential. These abnormalities seem to be directly related to the duration of mobile phone use. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. This review also addresses: Other parameters of semen analysis did not change significantly. EMWs, which are used in communications worldwide, are a suspected cause of male infertility. Many studies evaluated the effects of cell phones and wi-fi on fertility.